In the theological and philosophical realms, God is often described as being both outside of time and as ever-existing. However, both of these statements present a differing picture on God's relationship with eternity. If God is outside of time, God would know time as a single, eternal present. All events would simultaneously occur before God. However, when we describe God as being ever-existing, we imply that God would experience time in a temporal sense. God then, is present at the beginning and ending of time itself, seeing time as it elapses. The question concerning this relationship is further complicated when one considers the nature of time. Time may exist in two different realities. These realities are called the A-series and B-series of time. The A-series presents a tensed, chronological view of time. In this understanding, the past, present, and future all exist independent of the others in a more objective sense. The B-series contrasts with this view and presents a tenseless understanding of time. Time here does not exist in a more objective sense, but rather it exists in a relational sense. Time is only real insofar as we can say event x occurred before event y. In the modern philosophical debate on time, Eternalists and Open Theists present their beliefs regarding God's eternity and the tense of time. In this paper, I argue that the Boethian view on both of these questions solves this debate and presents a fuller understanding of God's relationship with eternity.
"On God’s Eternity: How the Boethian Position on Kairos (καιρός) Solves the Debate Between Eternalism and Open Theism,"
The Macksey Journal: Vol. 1
, Article 87.
Available at: https://www.mackseyjournal.org/publications/vol1/iss1/87